Some diseases are purely male, for example, prostatic hyperplasia. With it, a tumor forms in the prostate, which can be eliminated in various ways.
It is believed that the treatment of BPH is possible only by surgery, but this is not entirely true. Some diseases are purely male, for example, prostatic hyperplasia.
With it, a tumor forms in the prostate, which can be eliminated in various ways. It is believed that the treatment of BPH is possible only by surgery, but this is not entirely true.
Causes of the appearance of pathology
The risk group for prostate diseases includes all older men suffering from bad habits. Increase the chance of developing hyperplasia:
- violation of sexual life – impotence or excessive activity;
- transferred venereal diseases;
- poor-quality nutrition (unbalanced diet, choice of foods with chemical additives);
- lack of physical activity.
Also negative factors include heredity. A high probability of developing adenoma in those men whose fathers and grandfathers suffered from BPH. Similarly, if phimosis is observed in a parent, then it can be found in his son or grandson.
Even the absence of risk factors does not save from prostate hyperplasia. Doctors believe that this disease can occur against the background of:
- hormonal changes (including in adolescents);
- dysfunction of the thyroid gland;
- age-related increase in the number of female sex hormones (observed after 40-50 years);
- high testosterone levels.
Under the influence of these factors, the prostate increases in size, squeezing the back of the urethra and the muscles surrounding it. Tissue proliferation can lead to more severe consequences, depending on the stage of tumor development.
How can a man suspect a benign prostate tumor?
A large number of nerve endings are concentrated around the prostate, it is involved in hormonal metabolism and is located next to the urethra. These features of the anatomy lead to the fact that there are many symptoms of hyperplasia:
- violation of the flow of urine – a change in the diameter of the jet when removing urine, its direction;
- frequent urge to urinate at night;
- pain and burning during the excretion of urine;
- in the process of excretion of urine there are frequent breaks;
- heaviness in the lower abdomen, in the testicles;
- dysuric tension;
- difficulty in excreting urine, delay even with a full bladder;
- irresistible urge to visit the toilet;
- restless sleep leading to lethargy during the day;
- irritability and stress;
- bad feeling;
- unbalanced psychological state;
- decreased libido, erectile dysfunction.
BPH in the early stages can go almost unnoticed, but as it develops, it causes more and more obvious symptoms. More often they are associated with irritative urination disorder.
At the same time, you should not self-diagnose and prescribe treatment. According to statistics, 30% of men who choose to take prostatitis medications actually suffer from prostatic hyperplasia.
When should you urgently see a doctor?
A man cannot ignore the general symptoms of HPZh, characteristic of each of its stages:
- frequent urge to visit the toilet;
- low jet pressure during urination;
- interruption of the jet when emptying the bladder;
- the presence of blood in urine;
- feeling of residual urine in the bladder.
These signs can also be observed during exacerbation of kidney disease, so you need to urgently consult a doctor. A man needs to urgently visit a urologist and conduct a diagnosis.
Features of the disease
To understand what BPH is, it is necessary to study this disease comprehensively. There are two types of prostate tumors:
- Benign (BPH) – a tumor from the cells of the organ itself, is more common in adult men. Its peculiarity is that only the tissues of the organ grow, the tumor does not metastasize. In urology, such a formation is also called an adenoma. In conclusion, doctors usually indicate it with the ICD-10 code: No. 40.
- Malignant – a tumor of degenerate cells that can spread through the blood and lymph flow throughout the body. This disease in the common people is called cancer, atypical cells in it lead to the appearance of tumors on other organs.
Many believe that benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause the development of malignant. These diseases are similar to each other, but they affect different parts of the prostate gland.
Cancer and adenoma are hormone-dependent, so it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible.
BPH is classified in many ways. You need to understand what each type means. Most often, you can meet the division of the tumor into types according to its position in the prostate.
|Type of tumor||Location|
|subvesical||Growth of tissues towards the rectum.|
|Intravesical||The tumor tends towards the bladder and compresses it. In this case, irritation of the nerve endings and frequent visits to the toilet occur.|
|Retrotrigonal||The tissues grow under the triangle of the bladder, making it difficult for the outflow of urine and pinching the mouth of the ureters. This type is often called nodal.|
Quite often at an adenoma several centers are formed at once. The first two types of hyperplasia are more often bilateral, that is, the tumor is symmetrical.
Another classification divides benign prostatic hyperplasia into types depending on the cells that formed the tumor.
|What tissue is the tumor formed from?||What’s this?|
|Fibrous||Seals are separated from the connective tissue of the organ. Connective and stromal cells are involved in the formation of adenoma.|
|Muscular (diffuse)||Cells of muscle tissue grow, forming nodes. This type is extremely rare.|
|glandular||There is a significant increase in the body, due to the division of its cells. Glandular hyperplasia develops slowly, often without obvious symptoms. Usually it is discovered during an accidental routine examination or during the diagnosis of other diseases.|
It is possible to understand what type of disease is tormenting the patient by cytological examination of tumor tissues.
Stages of development
Before treating hyperplasia, the stage of tumor development is determined in the patient. This is important in order to understand which therapy to prescribe to the patient, as well as to predict recovery.
|Stage of the disease||Description|
|Compensated||This degree of tumor development lasts up to 3 years. The disease appears: Problems with urination frequent nightly urge to go to the toilet; lethargy of the urine stream. At the same time, clear boundaries remain in the prostate gland, the organ is moderately enlarged. Symptoms are mild. At this stage, drug treatment is effective.|
|Subcompensated||At this stage, there are problems with emptying the bladder. They are expressed as: cloudy urine; increased urge to empty the bladder; appearance of blood impurities in the urine. The patient develops chronic renal failure.|
|decompensated||The most dangerous stage for the patient. The clinical picture of the disease is clear. Due to squeezing, the bladder becomes distended, an admixture of blood appears in the urine. Urination is most difficult. To prevent a rupture of the bladder, the patient needs urgent help, which consists in installing a catheter. It will expand the urinary ducts and relieve spasm from them. After getting rid of the symptoms, it is urgent to eliminate the cause of their appearance.|
The third stage of the disease is often divided into two stages: at the first (transitional) the patient experiences difficulty in excreting urine and severe pain in the lower abdomen, and at the second, urination becomes completely impossible.
How is it diagnosed?
Urologists, when referring to them, the patient adhere to a clear scheme of work, they adhere to the scheme of differential diagnosis. At the first admission are carried out:
- collection of anamnesis, patient complaints;
- examination, including a rectal examination of the prostate.
During the survey, it is necessary to tell in as much detail as possible about the tormenting symptoms, past diseases (especially viral and infectious), allergies and medications taken. It is also worth finding out in advance whether other men in your family had urological ailments (including: prostatitis, adenoma, cancer).
After the examination, the doctor prescribes laboratory tests:
- Determination of the composition of urine. If blood is found in the urine, then this indicates an advanced disease. The detected leukocytes are characteristic of infections of the urinary system, while the urine itself will be cloudy.
- Bacterial culture of urine, prostate secretion, discharge from the urethra. It is prescribed to exclude or confirm the infectious nature of the disease.
- Analysis for prostate cancer antigen. Normally, this indicator does not exceed 4.0 ng / ml. If the indicator is elevated, then there are suspicions of a malignant tumor.
- Biochemistry of blood. Appointed to determine the work of the kidneys. With insufficiency of their functions, the indicators of creatinine, urea, potassium and other electrolytes change. It is necessary to decipher the indicators in a complex.
Mandatory instrumental research methods:
- Ultrasound of the prostate;
- uroflowmetry ;
- radiography of the pelvic organs without the introduction of a contrast agent;
- urography using a contrast solution;
- biopsy, CT and MRI if a malignant tumor is suspected.
During the preparation of the patient for surgery, cystoscopy, ECG and other studies may be prescribed. They allow you to exclude other diseases that lead to complications. In this case, the ECHO KG should be immediately decoded.
Ultrasound is more informative. In the pictures, the doctor will detect echo -signs of the disease in the form of tissue seals.
Additionally, an ultrasound echographic examination helps to establish the true dimensions of the organ (they are indicated in the protocol in millimeters, since centimeters are too large a measurement for the gland). The photo taken during the diagnosis allows you to determine the location of the tumor.